Mareko Fana is probably the only exception, distinctly chocolaty when mature. Ethiopians have enjoyed raw meat for centuries, and they now use mitmita to fire it up. My sense of taste was dulled. Awaze (dark red), Mitmita (orange powder) and Senafich (green) Awaze is made of berbere powder and a liquid (either water, tej (local honey wine), red wine, or beer). For a more complex recipe, we turn to Gurage culture, which gave kitfo – chopped, seasoned ground beef, eaten raw – to the Ethiopian menu. You’ll find these same ingredients in Ethiopian Traditional Recipes, a cookbook published by the Ethiopian Nutrition Institute in 1980. O que é berberina: sf (bérbere+ina) 1 Quím e Farm Alcalóide cristalino amarelo, amargo, obtido do bérbere e outras plantas, e usado como tônico e antiperiódico. In Amharic, the state language of Ethiopia, berbere means two things: specifically, the red pepper powder used to spice a wot, and more generally, it’s simply the word for “pepper.” The Ethiopian scholar Tewolde Berhan Gebre Egziabher even speculates that the name berbere derives from papare, the word for pepper in Ge’ez, the language of ancient Ethiopia (now only used in liturgical writing). BERBERE IS SO ESSENTIAL to Ethiopian cooking today that it’s hard to imagine the cuisine without it. It will be up to you and your preferences to choose with which combination you will live your Berebere experience. At Bunna Cafe in New York City, they make their daata with awaze, garlic, cilantro and vinegar. Kitfo consist of raw (or rare) ground beef mixed with mitmita (spicy chili power similar to berbere) and kebbeh. The average daily consumption of hot pepper by Ethiopian adult is estimated at 15 grams, which is higher than tomatoes and most other vegetables. The breakfast porridge genfo – barley flour cooked in water – comes with a well carved in the middle. Bruce’s monumental five-volume account of his trip to Ethiopia, from 1769 to 1771, picks up the story, describing fiery Ethiopian foods seasoned with cayenne, which he says the Ethiopians mixed with black pepper. This amazing blend packs a real punch on the heat seekers chart for sure. I’ve come to use berbere and mitmita in place of cayenne or the ubiquitous Sriracha brand of hot sauce in many dishes. They all begin with berbere and water, adding slightly different other ingredients. Hirsch, a long-time food writer for The Associated Press, offers a lesson on using berbere that includes some quick suggestions and a full recipe for a chicken burger with goat cheese. Starting with 15 pounds of peppers will give you a lot of berbere, but you get the idea: Many different spices go into it. As for the species of Capsicum used to make berbere and mitmita, there’s some dispute among botanists and taxonomists about what to call this. See the recipe. ( Log Out /  The introduction to Seleshi’s 2011 thesis provides a concise history of the arrival of red hot peppers from the New World: Capsicum has been known since the beginning of civilization in the Western Hemisphere. Columbus is given credit for introducing hot pepper to Europe, and subsequently to Africa and Asia. And the 1998 revision includes something that the 1952 original lacked: an actual recipe for berbere that includes the usual ingredients. Local variations are different from the original species, and now they are importing seeds from the international market for productivity, not authenticity. The only difference between the two is that one has considerably more salt than the other. In 1848, the British explorer Walter Plowden toured Ethiopia, where he ate injera and a wot spiced with berbere, “a small hot pepper resembling cayenne, ground fine.” Another Brit, Henry Dufton, observed the Ethiopians’ tolerance for spicy foods. See the recipe. Did he just not encounter the word, or had Ethiopians, as late as the 1770s, still not mixed powdered red pepper with other spices to make a seasoning unique to their culture? በርበሬ ሚጥሚጣ ምጥን ሽሮ በሒማሊያ የባሕር ጨውና በቅመማት የተስራ Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *. Moreover, hot pepper has been cultivated in Ethiopia for a long period of time. If Berebere is the “Big Daddy” of Ethiopian spices then Mitmita would be classed as the “Heavyweight”. Columbus took back capsicums to Europe, and shortly afterwards to India and Southeast Asia on Portuguese voyages. “The biggest problem is that there are no pictures to go with the names. The crop spread rapidly across Europe into India, China, and Japan. ♦ For another fish option, try Helena Spensatelli’s tilapia with berbere butter from her Saucy Girl’s Kitchen website. Columbus called it red pepper because the pods were red. Tears came to my eyes. The first words in these names are the regions where they grow. And note again: no cloves, making Daniel the outlier with this ingredient. The plant was not the black pepper, but an unknown plant that was later classified as Capsicum. For berbere, you use a type that we would just call a Mexican chili pepper, and for mitmita, use the much hotter serrano. What is Mitmita? Or you can mix mitmita with ayib (Ethiopian cheese). By the end of the Seventeenth Century, C. annum var. Berbere do deserto em Marrocos. But let’s say you’re ambitious. 8:30. By the 19th Century, European visitors began to note berbere by name. You don’t want to get a blend that uses paprika as a base. Some chefs do just that – not that you need a chef to tell you what to do in your kitchen – and as the popularity of Ethiopian food spreads, more uses for these spices emerge. One of my homemade favorites is salmon patties, where I blend bread crumbs, mayonnaise and an Ethiopian pepper – berbere or mitmita, your choice – to make the paste, then mix it into the salmon (cooked and chopped up) to form patties. And Ethiopian food in American restaurants really isn’t all that blistering – not like the fire of Indian or Thai curries, or even Korean hot sauce. But Tewolde didn’t have access to the writings of Pedro Paez, a Portuguese missionary who arrived in Ethiopia in 1589 and stayed for more than 25 years, eventually befriending Emperor Susenyos and converting him (but not the entire country) to Catholicism. One could load 50 caravels a year with it.”. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The Ethiopian native, who has lived in America for more than 40 years, grows peppers in northern California and turns them into the berbere, mitmita and shiro that he sells locally. The spice has a fiery taste, with a floral aroma. Active time: 15 min Start to finish: 15 min Both require red peppers, salt, cardamom, koseret (an oregano-like African herb), tikur azmud (black cumin) and nech azmud. Mitmita. See the recipe. Yet Bruce doesn’t call it berbere, and in his account, Ethiopians use both cayenne and black pepper to season their foods. While, Berbere may be the best known Ethiopian spice mix, Mitmita, pronounced "Mee-tee-mee-ta", is a very aromatic, red-orange colored, crazy hot spice blend. The fine powdered pungent product is an indispensable flavoring and coloring ingredient in the common traditional sauce wot, whereas the green pod is consumed as a vegetable with other food items. A COMPANION SITE TO THE BOOK BY HARRY KLOMAN, Breaking the News About Ethiopian Food (Part 2) Some Ethiopian friends have told me that children may use afrinj until they’re old enough for the hotter stuff. Either one is excellent in pasta sauce, or in breading for pork chops and chicken. She prepares crispy berbere chicken over lentils (a favorite of the Ethiopian table). You can also buy your berbere and mitmita from an increasing number of online shops, although one caveat here: Check the ingredients. When I make chili, I replace chili powder with berbere. Some chili seeds came at the same time and there is now plenty, and the people like it very much.”. It is the main parts of the daily diet of most Ethiopian societies. “The scientific literature on the berbere varieties is poor at best and worse for mitmita,” Menkir says. Apesar do seu orgulho e amor próprio, e da resistência… Like Berbere, Mitmaita is often made at home and the blends can change from house to house. Berbere which is a rich red color (due to the Smoked Sweet Paprika and Cayenne chile pepper) and it's the signature seasoning in the hearty Ethiopian stew, called wat. Segundo reza a história, os berberes viviam em tribos no deserto do Saara, em zonas onde agora estão vários países como é o caso da Argélia, Mauritânia e, claro, Marrocos, entre outros da região do Magreb.. Muitos marroquinos são, claramente, descendentes dos berberes. It has been a part of the human diet since about 7500 B.C. Not to mention Ethiopia, the oldest of Old Worlds, which Paez’s 1620 book confirms. SO NOW THAT YOU HAVE your berbere and mitmita, what do you cook with it? Tewolde notes that Capsicum “requires such extensive care that it dominates the farmer’s life, especially at the seedling production phrase. Berbere/Mitmita Spice Mix. My mouth burned from the quantity of pepper. Menkir grows a pepper that he calls Mareko Fana, a name that appears in the literature, along with other peppers like Melka Zala, Weldele, Melka Shote, Bako Local, Oda Haro, Dube Medium, Dube Short. Just make sure you don’t have a twitchy wrist when you sprinkle it onto your meal. An Ethiopian-born friend tells me that she replaces the water in awaze with t’ej to make her delleh. “Not only do they use pepper on meats, but it is mixed in their bread, in milk, and even in the water they drink,” he wrote in his 1867 book. Many of these businesses, owned by Ethiopians, import their spices from back home. ( Log Out /  The Gondarine recipe is simple: berbere, salt, noog oil and water. annum and C. frutescens were being grown in most of the warmer regions of the world. Daata can come as a garnish at an Ethiopian meal, something to put on your food or to enjoy as a dip, perhaps with injera or dabo (bread). Breakfast in an Ethiopian household uses the common ingredients found in dishes prepared for both lunch and dinner. If you already have these spices in ground form, you can … Are these truly different species, or are they simply cultivars – essentially, breeds – of C. annuum? This amazing blend packs a real punch on the heat seekers chart for sure. Yet despite all of the research, no one can say for sure when hot peppers arrived in Ethiopia from the Americas by way of Europe, and no on has studied the genetic makeup of today’s many varieties of Capsicum in an attempt to tell us how different they are from each other. Breaking the News About Ethiopian Food (Part 2). They belong to the large family Solanaceae (the nightshades) and the broad genus Capsicum, which covers everything from the mildest of sweet peppers to plump green jalapeños and spicy red spears that can damage your mouth and digestive track if you eat them raw. But there was no English translation until 2011, and so Tewolde couldn’t have read these words: “There is sugar cane, ginger, cardamom, black cumin, dill, fennel, coriander, cress and some bad kinds of lettuce, but just two years ago some lettuce, cabbage and chicory seeds arrived from India, and everything is beginning to grow very well. It’s a sort of retirement profession for him after years in the technology industry, and he, too, would like to know more about the genetic makeup and classifications of the peppers he’s growing from Ethiopian seeds. Bake or broil them until they’re lightly browned and you have a spicy riff (to say the least) on Ethiopian cooking. Daniel’s cookbook also offers the option of Ethiopian sushi: chunks of skinless fish filets dipped in powdered mitmita. You blend most of the ingredients and let them sit for 12 hours, roast the cinnamon, salt, cardamom and cloves in a skillet, eventually mix them all together, and grind everything into a fine powder. Todas as palavras de A a Z. Then there’s mitmita, again made from powered red pepper, lighter in color but much hotter than berbere, with fewer added spices and used in fewer dishes. All three are owned by Ethiopian-Americans. See the recipe. Paez has nothing more to say on the subject, but that one sentence tells us that the foundation of berbere came to Ethiopia from India. Berbere is best made from whole spices which are toasted and ground. It is a key ingredient in the cuisines of Ethiopia and Eritrea. As an adult, he rediscovered his Ethiopian heritage, and he’s begun to create recipes using berbere: For example, there’s his Ethiopian chicken taco, or his deep fried turkey with berbere. While mitmita is often turned in meat dishes to add an extra kick during the cooking process, it’s also used as a condiment to lend … Or you can enjoy kita, a mini-pizza-like item made from batter that’s fried in a pan and smeared with you-know-what. Because mitmita is so essential to kitfo, and because kitfo is so essential to Gurage culture, the Gurages tout their preparation of the spice as the best. Encantadores de serpentes na Praça Jemaa El-Fna em Marraquexe Denominados Berberes ou Imazighen, o povo autóctone do Norte de Africa encerra na sua origem, na sua língua e na sua cultura um carácter misterioso e fascinante, fruto séculos de vida isolada nos confins das montanhas. Finally, if you mix berbere with melted niter kibe, you have a hot buttery liquid with several applications (and without a name of its own, as far as I know). ♦ Sylvia Fountaine read the novel Cutting for Stone, set partly in Ethiopia, and its talk of food inspired her to create a recipe for her Feasting at Home website. The new spice was incorporated into the cuisines instantaneously. And we devoured everything indiscriminately, cooling our mouths, from time to time, with sour cream or by drinking a wonderful mead – t’ej – from little decanters wrapped in little silk handkerchiefs.”. Menkir Tamrat has the same problem. There’s also daata, a much thicker paste of berbere and a few other spices. And that’s about it: No traditional mitmita sauces or dips like you’ll find with berbere. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. If Berebere is the “Big Daddy” of Ethiopian spices then Mitmita would be classed as the “Heavyweight”. Significado de Berberina no Dicio, Dicionário Online de Português. THE RECIPES FOR BERBERE AND MITMITA are pretty straightforward, and you can easily make them at home, although you’ll need a special tool to prepare them. These are also the ingredients you’ll find in Ethiopian Traditional Recipes: 175 grams of peppers, 55 grams of cardamom, 201 grams of salt. Here’s the traditional way of grinding pepper to make berbere. And don’t forget shiro, the delicious dish made from spiced chickpea or yellow pea powder that you reconstitute in water and cook until it thickens. Berbere, an Ethiopian spice blend made with fenugreek, paprika, ginger, coriander, and many more spices, is integral to many Ethiopian dishes. You can reduce the ingredients proportionally in any of these recipes to make a smaller quantity, and you can certainly lessen the amount of salt to taste (mitmita can be rather salty). Selling red peppers in an Addis Ababa market (1913). The turkey recipe uses the constituent elements of berbere, but you can always eliminate all of those spices and use the real thing if you have it. ♦ J.M. So I’ll just turn to Shakespeare to settle the issue: Capsicum annuum by several other names – all a little more than kin, but less than kind – is the pepper we use to make berbere and mitmita. I season my meatloaf with chopped onions, chopped jalapeños, and mitmita. Todas as páginas cujo título começa por "Berbere" Berbere is the essential ingredient in any wot – that is, a spicy Ethiopian stew, whether you make it with meat or vegetables. Break the kita up into little pieces and you have chechebsa. Paul Bosland, a botanist at New Mexico State University, has explained it this way: “I think that saying ‘African bird’s eye chili’ is like saying ‘chili verde‘ or ‘green chili.’ Any piquin-shaped fruit is African bird’s eye chili.”, Peppers dry in the Ethiopian sun before becoming berbere, A few years ago, Bosland said, he received samples of C. frutescens, but most of them turned out to be genetically C. annuum. This surely means that Ethiopians didn’t have the red hot Capsicum in the mid-1500s. This is my amalgamation of recipes that combines these two spice mixes. Guess what goes into the well as a rich hot dipping sauce? Hot pepper is produced in all the continents except Antarctica, and historically associated with the voyage of Columbus. The most common is awaze, which is simply berbere turned into a paste by adding water and oil. Here are a few dishes that other cooks have created using Ethiopian pepper powder: ♦ Marcus Samuelsson was born in Ethiopia, adopted by a Swedish family, and now lives in New York City, where he’s a celebrity chef and restaurateur. Because authentic berbere can be hard to find, we developed our own recipe. It’s called berbere, and it’s mostly the powdered flesh of peppers of the genus Capsicum (CAP-si-cum). But frankly, it’s a lot easier to buy prepared spice powders and then follow a recipe for blending them. Aster Ketsela Belayneh does it even more simply in The Recipe of Love: three pounds of hot chili pepper flakes, one pound of cardamom, one pound of salt. Excavations at the ancient kingdom of Aksum – the proto-Ethiopia, located in what’s now the north of the country and the south of Eritrea – found traces of the pungent plant cress, and scholars speculate that Ethiopians used it to spice their foods in the first several centuries A.D. The far hotter mitmita has far fewer applications at the table, but they’re important ones. From a 1964 cookbook, 10 different delleh recipes. Misir wot is the popular Ethiopian lentil stew, which she prepares with gomen (kale) and uses to top a pizza crust made of teff, the grain used to make injera. I have a bright red berbere variety that we call Mareko Red for lack of knowing the real name. See the recipe. No cloves in either of these, although Daniel doesn’t use a lot in his version. If it were present when Alvares visited Ethiopia, it would be expected that he would have noted it.”, Tewolde’s well-documented 1984 essay about New World foods in Ethiopia notes that the Scottish explorer James Bruce, in his 18th Century account, specifically mentions Capsicum. Berberes — povo do norte da África; Línguas berberes — grupo de línguas faladas pelos berberes; Berbere (cavalo) — raça de cavalo Berbere (condimento) — da Etiópia Berberis — género botânico; Berberidaceae — família botânica; Ver também. But its history in the country is perhaps more ancient than the history of any other vegetable product. We know that Ethiopians cooked the way they do now, making spicy wots served atop injera, since at least the 13th Century, and almost certainly much earlier. Choose the one you like, but here’s the bottom line: Red pepper forms the foundation of berbere. Fit-fit is the most common breakfast option. 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